Community-based initiatives in development, peacebuilding, and social innovation have questioned the appropriateness of mainstream monitoring and evaluation (M&E) approaches, which use logical frames and quantitative indicators to ensure accountability and assess impact. Students will be introduced to a range of alternative approaches to M&E that emphasize relationships, complexity, learning, and collaboration. How do you know when your organization or program is making a difference? How do you maintain focus on the right priorities? We will explore outcome mapping, social frameworks, ethnographic and story-based approaches, as well as developmental and utilization-focused evaluation tools in case study contexts. This course will encourage mutual learning among students on people-focused M&E rather than the development of skills in any single approach.